In the second industrial revolution, there were two major means of transportation: aircraft and automobile. The improvement of traffic efficiency has greatly expanded the human life circle.
Aircraft has always been the carrier of all kinds of high-tech, its standard and advanced level are ahead of the automobile. But with the continuous development of science and technology, a lot of aviation technology has begun to be popularized to cars, making our driving easier and safer. Believe it or not, the following technologies are actually from aviation.
ABS anti lock system
At first, the aircraft braking distance is very long when landing, and the braking process is easy to cause tire blowout due to tire locking. For this reason, French aircraft designer chabrie fuvasin designed a set of wheel pulse braking system, which greatly shortened the braking distance and reduced the tire burst. This is the prototype of ABS.
Due to the continuous optimization of the electronic system, the traditional mechanical anti lock system is replaced by the electronic control ABS. In the 1970s, this technology was first used in automobiles. With the maturity of technology and the continuous reduction of cost, ABS began to be widely used in the 1980s. In case of emergency braking, ABS can keep the steering function of the front wheels and improve the safety of the car.
At present, ABS anti lock system has almost become the standard configuration on the car, only ktmx-bow and other exotic models will ignore this configuration.
Steer by wire
The word “turn by wire” sounds very sci-fi. In fact, its working principle has been widely used in the field of aviation. Due to the continuous development of aircraft, the traditional mechanical hydraulic transmission structure is complex, and the transmission speed is not agile enough to meet the demand; while the line transmission control technology is quick in response, agile in control and simple in structure, which just makes up for the shortage of mechanical transmission. The principle of line transmission control is that the control instructions are transmitted to the actuator by means of electric signal after being processed by computer, so as to realize control.
In the field of automobile, the most representative of this black technology is Infiniti Q50. The “Das wire controlled active steering” is exactly the same principle: there is no hard connection between the steering wheel and the wheel steering gear. Through three sets of independent electronic control units, the road condition and the driver’s operation intention are comprehensively calculated, and finally the steering motor is controlled by cable to complete the steering.
The response of this steering system is much faster than that of traditional mechanical steering, and more possibilities are reserved for future automatic driving.
As with the steer by wire, the fly by wire brake comes from the aircraft’s steer by wire technology. Its advantages of simple structure and quick response are firstly applied to F1 racing car which pursues extreme lightweight: when the driver steps on the brake pedal, ECU controls the distribution of rear axle electric brake and front axle mechanical brake after calculation, so as to simulate the linear braking effect. Provide the most powerful brake without locking and maximize energy recovery.
In the past two years, this technology has gradually been applied in mass production vehicles, such as alpha Romeo Giulia and the new generation CR-V. The traditional hydraulic power assisted brake needs to rely on the vacuum negative pressure generated by the engine to generate power, while the electric brake is to turn the power to the motor to complete, only the brake part depends on the hydraulic system to complete.
It is worth mentioning that the brakes of the hybrid vehicles need to be combined with the kinetic energy recovery system, so most of the hybrid vehicles, including the Camry double engine, adopt the electric brake.
Due to the objective conditions of emission regulations and emission tax, small displacement turbocharged engine is more and more popular in the market. When it comes to the origin of turbocharging, it is the aircraft that most uses the technology. In the early days, the propeller aircraft used the naturally aspirated piston engine, but due to the rarefied air and low oxygen content in the high altitude, the power of the aircraft decreased seriously, and the addition of the turbocharger solved this problem.
In World War II, fighter planes with turbo engines had excellent power and climbing performance. In the 21st century, most of the aircraft use turbofan and turbojet engine. Although the traditional turbocharger is abandoned, the turbocharged air is still in the form of turbine.
When it comes to the application of turbocharger in automobile, we have to mention Saab. In the late 1970s, Saab began to promote turbocharging in a wide range of vehicles, and won the title of “ground flight”.
In recent years, the prevalence of turbocharging, on the one hand, is the use of turbocharging compared with the same displacement vehicle more powerful, higher fuel efficiency, on the other hand, small displacement turbocharging in dealing with emissions regulations and emissions tax more advantages.
HUD head up display
All the friends who know about the military know that the HUD head up display on the fighter can facilitate the pilot to read the corresponding information, quickly lock the enemy aircraft in the battle, and attack faster.
The working principle of HUD is not complicated. Through optical reflection, some important data are projected onto the glass screen, and the focal length of reflection is adjusted to infinity, so that the display effect of head up can be realized.
At present, HUD is widely used in automobile, and it can be seen in many models with medium and high configuration. According to the different projection forms, it can be divided into c-hud, w-hud and ar-hud, among which w-hud is relatively balanced and widely used. HUD head up display can make the driver more attentive to driving, not distracted by looking down at the instrument panel, and can reduce the visual fatigue caused by constantly switching vision, greatly improving the safety of driving.
DRS variable tail
The reason why the aircraft can rise in the air is to use the principle that the pressure on the side with fast air velocity is less than that on the side with slow air velocity. Because the shape of the wing is flat at the lower part and convex at the upper part, the air velocity at the upper part of the wing is faster than that at the lower part – when a certain speed is reached, enough lift can be generated to make the aircraft take off.
When the plane lands, the deceleration plate on the wing will rise to provide a certain downforce and slow down.
In principle, the tail of a car is almost the same as the wing of an airplane, but the car needs downforce instead of lift, so the tail shape is just the opposite of the wing. In addition, the DRS variable tail of the McLaren P1, for example, is inspired by the deceleration plate of the aircraft. In case of emergency braking, the angle of DRS tail will change greatly, and the air braking can be used, at the same time, the downforce can be further increased, and the traction effect of tire can be improved.
Driving aids – collision warning
Autopilot is a very hot topic in recent years, but in fact, autopilot technology has been carried on Civil Aviation airliners for many years: when the aircraft enters the stratosphere, it can automatically drive according to the scheduled route through satellite navigation; in this process, the radar on the aircraft can constantly monitor the surrounding conditions, calculate the possibility of collision and make an early warning.
Limited by the conditions, although the car can not reach the level of full automatic driving, but some driving assistance systems also lay the groundwork for the realization of automatic driving. In the automobile, the anti-collision early warning system also relies on radar and camera to detect the surrounding objects. When there is a possibility of collision, the system will give an alarm first; if the driver still does not take emergency measures, the system will tighten the safety belt, actively brake, and minimize the collision damage as much as possible.
In short, the continuous progress of science and technology will inevitably bring about the innovation of automobile technology. I believe that in the near future, the era of automatic driving will come, and there will be a huge change in the whole transportation system. Let’s wait and see!